Attainable Standards of Learning

ENGLISH

National Council of Teachers of English, Standards for the English Language Arts
ContentStandard
Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.1
Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).3
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.4
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.5
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.6
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.7
Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.8
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).12


SOCIAL STUDIES

National Council for the Social Studies, Curriculum Standards for Social Studies (Middle Grades)
ContentStandard
Learners will understand:
  • Key concepts such as chronology, causality, change, conflict, complexity, multiple perspectives, primary and secondary sources, and cause and effect.
  • That learning about the past requires the interpretation of sources, and that using varied sources provides the potential for a more balanced interpretive record of the past.
  • The contributions of key persons, groups, and events from the past and their influence on the present.
  • The history of democratic ideal and principles, and how they are represented in documents, artifacts and symbols.
Learners will be able to:
  • Identify and use a variety of primary and secondary sources for reconstructing the past, such as documents, letters, diaries, maps, textbooks, photos, and other sources.
  • Research and analyze past periods, events, and issues, using a variety of primary sources (e.g., documents, letters, artifacts, and testimony) as well as secondary sources; validate and weigh evidence for claims, and evaluate the usefulness and degree of reliability of sources to develop a supportable interpretation.
2. Time, Continuity, and Change
Learners will understand:
  • Fundamental ideas that are the foundation of American constitutional democracy (including those of the U.S. Constitution, the rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, minority rights, the separation of church and state, and Federalism).
  • Fundamental values of constitutional democracy (e.g., the common good, liberty, justice, equality, and individual dignity).
Learners will be able to:
  • Examine persistent issues involving the rights and responsibilities of individuals and groups in relation to the broader society.
  • Compare and analyze the ways in which groups and nations respond to the richness of unity and diversity, as well as tensions and conflicts associated with unity and diversity.
  • Evaluate the role of technology as it contributes to conflict and cooperation among nations and groups, and as it contributes to or detracts from systems of power, authority, and governance.
6. Power, Authority, and Governance
Learners will understand:
  • Society often turns to science and technology to solve problems.
  • Our lives today are media and technology dependent.
  • Science and technology have had both positive and negative impacts upon individuals, societies, and the environment in the past and present.
  • Science and technology have changed peoples’ perceptions of the social and natural world, as well as their relationship to the land, economy and trade, their concept of security, and their major daily activities.
  • How media are created and received depends upon cultural contexts.
  • Science and technology sometimes create ethical issues that test our standards and values.
  • That there are gaps in access to science and technology around the world.
Learners will be able to:
  • Use diverse types of media technology to read, write, create, and review a variety of messages.
  • Seek and evaluate varied perspectives when weighing how specific applications of science and technology have impacted individuals and society.
  • Select, organize, evaluate, and communicate information about the impact of science or technology on a society today or in the past.
8. Science, Technology, and Society
Learners will understand:
  • Global connections have existed in the past and increased rapidly in current times.
Learners will be able to:
  • Describe and analyze the effects of changing technologies on global connectivity.
9. Global Connections
Learners will understand:
  • Concepts and ideals such as: individual dignity, liberty, justice, equality, individual rights, responsibility, majority and minority rights, and civil dissent.
  • Key practices involving the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the exercise of citizenship (e.g., respecting the rule of law and due process, voting, serving on a jury, researching issues, making informed judgments, expressing views on issues, and collaborating with other to take civic action).
  • The importance of becoming informed in order to make positive civic contributions.
Learners will be able to:
  • Identify assumptions, misconceptions, and bias in sources, evidence, and arguments used in presenting issues and positions.
  • Identify, seek, describe, and evaluate multiple points of view about selected issues, noting the strengths, weaknesses, and consequences associated with holding each position.
10. Civic Ideas and Practices


National Council for the Social Studies, Curriculum Standards for Social Studies (High School)
ContentStandard
Learners will understand:
  • Key concepts such as: era, chronology, causality, change, continuity, conflict, historiography, historical method, primary and secondary sources, cause and effect, and multiple perspectives.
  • The importance of knowledge of the past to an understanding of the present and to informed decision-making about the future.
Learners will be able to:
  • Research and analyze past periods, events, and recurring issues, using a variety of primary sources (e.g., documents, letters, artifacts, and testimony) as well as secondary sources; validate and weigh evidence for claims, check the usefulness and degree of reliability of sources, and evaluate different interpretations in order to develop their own interpretation supported by the evidence.
2. Time, Continuity, and Change
Learners will understand:
  • Fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy (including those of the U.S. Constitution, the rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, minority rights, the separation of church and state, and Federalism).
  • Fundamental values of constitutional democracy (e.g., the common good, liberty, justice, equality, and individual dignity).
Learners will be able to:
  • Examine persistent issues involving the rights, responsibilities, roles, and status of individuals and groups in relation to the broader society.
  • Compare and analyze the ways in which groups and nations respond to the richness of unity and diversity, as well as tensions and conflicts associated with unity and diversity.
  • Evaluate the role of technology in communications, transportation, information-processing, weapons development, and other areas as it contributes to conflict and cooperation among groups and nations.
6. Power, Authority, and Governance
Learners will understand:
  • Science and technology have had both positive and negative impacts upon individuals, societies, and the environment in the past and present.
  • That the world is media saturated and technologically dependent.
  • Consequences of science and technology for individuals and societies.
  • Findings in science and advances in technology sometimes create ethical issues that test our standards and values.
  • The importance of the cultural contexts in which media are created and received.
  • Science, technology, and their consequences are unevenly available across the globe.
  • Science and technology have contributed to making the world increasingly interdependent.
  • That achievements in science and technology are increasing at a rapid pace and can have both planned and unanticipated consequences.
Learners will be able to:
  • Use diverse types of media technology to access, analyze, evaluate, create, and distribute messages.
  • Seek and evaluate varied perspectives when weighing how specific applications of science and technology have impacted individuals and societies in an interdependent world.
  • Identify and analyze reactions to science and technology from the past or present, and predict ongoing effects in economic, geographical, social, political, and cultural areas of life.
8. Science, Technology, and Society
Learners will understand:
  • Global connections are rapidly accelerating across cultures and nations, and can have both positive and negative effects on nations and individuals.
  • Technological advances can both improve and detract from the quality of life.
Learners will be able to:
  • Analyze and evaluate the effects of changing technologies on the global community.
9. Global Connections
Learners will understand:
  • Concepts and ideals such as: human dignity, social justice, liberty, equality, inalienable rights, responsibilities, civil dissent, citizenship, majority and minority rights, the common good, and the rule of law.
  • Key practices involving the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the exercise of citizenship (e.g., respecting the rule of law and due process, voting, serving on a jury, researching issues, making informed judgments, expressing views on issues, and collaborating with other to take civic action).
  • That seeking multiple perspectives is required in order effectively to grasp the complexity of issues involving civic ideals and practices.
  • The importance of becoming informed as the basis for thoughtful and positive contributions through civic action.
Learners will be able to:
  • Identify assumptions, misconceptions, and biases in sources, evidence, and arguments used in presenting issues and positions.
  • Identify, seek, describe, and evaluate multiple points of view about selected issues, noting the strengths, weaknesses, and consequences associated with holding each position.
10. Civic Ideas and Practices


CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT

Center for Civic Education, National Standards for Civics and Government (Grades 5-8)
ContentStandard
The American idea of constitutional government. Students should be able to explain the essential ideas of American constitutional government.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the means of limiting the powers of government under the United States Constitution
    • separation and sharing of powers
    • checks and balances
    • Bill of Rights
  • explain how specific provisions of the United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, limit the powers of government in order to protect the rights of individuals, e.g., habeas corpus; trial by jury; ex post facto; freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly; equal protection of the law; due process of law; right to counsel
  • evaluate, take, and defend positions on current issues involving constitutional protection of individual rights, such as
    • limits on speech, e.g., "hate speech," advertising, libel and slander, "fighting words"
    • separation of church and state, e.g., school vouchers, prayer in public schools
    • cruel and unusual punishment, e.g., death penalty
    • search and seizure, e.g., warrantless searches
    • privacy, e.g., fingerprinting of children, national identification cards, wiretapping, DNA banks
II.A.1.
Diversity in American society. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the value and challenges of diversity in American life.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain why conflicts have arisen from diversity, using historical and contemporary examples, e.g., North/South conflict; conflict about land, suffrage, and other rights of Native Americans; Catholic/Protestant conflicts in the nineteenth century; conflict about civil rights of minorities and women; present day ethnic conflict in urban settings
  • evaluate ways conflicts about diversity can be resolved in a peaceful manner that respects individual rights and promotes the common good
II.B.3.
Fundamental values and principles. Students should be able to explain the meaning and importance of the fundamental values and principles of American constitutional democracy.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • identify fundamental values and principles as expressed in
    • basic documents, e.g., Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution
    • significant political speeches and writings, e.g., The Federalist, Washington's Farewell Address, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, King's "I Have a Dream" speech
    • individual and group actions that embody fundamental values and principles, e.g., suffrage and civil rights movements
II.D.1.
Disparities between ideals and reality in American political and social life. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues concerning ways and means to reduce disparities between American ideals and realities.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • describe historical and contemporary efforts to reduce discrepancies between ideals and the reality of American public life, e.g., abolition, suffrage, civil rights, and environmental protection movements
  • explain ways in which discrepancies between reality and the ideals of American constitutional democracy can be reduced by
    • individual action
    • social action
    • political action
II.D.3.
The public agenda. Students should be able to explain what is meant by the public agenda and how it is set.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • describe how the public agenda is shaped by political leaders, interest groups, the media, state and federal courts, individual citizens
III.F.1.
Political communication. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the influence of the media on American political life.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the importance of freedom of the press to informed participation in the political system
  • evaluate the influence of television, radio, the press, newsletters, and emerging means of electronic communication on American politics
  • explain how Congress, the president, the Supreme Court, and state and local public officials use the media to communicate with the citizenry
  • explain how citizens can evaluate information and arguments received from various sources so that they can make reasonable choices on public issues and among candidates for political office
  • evaluate opportunities the media provide for individuals to monitor actions of their government, e.g., televised broadcasts of proceedings of governmental agencies, such as Congress and the courts, press conferences held by public officials
  • evaluate opportunities the media provide for individuals to communicate their concerns and positions on current issues, e.g., letters to the editor, talk shows, “op-ed pages,” public opinion polls
III.F.2.
Political rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues involving political rights.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • identify political rights, e.g., the right to vote, petition, assembly, freedom of press
  • explain the meaning of political rights as distinguished from personal rights, e.g., the right of free speech for political discussion as distinct from the right of free speech to express personal tastes and interests, the right to register to vote as distinct from the right to live where one chooses
  • identify major statements of political rights in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, state constitutions, and civil rights legislation
  • explain the importance to the individual and society of such political rights as
    • freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition
    • right to vote and to seek public office
  • identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve political rights, e.g., hate speech, fair trial, free press
V.B.2.
Scope and limits of rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper scope and limits of rights.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain what is meant by the “scope and limits” of a right, e.g., the scope of one's right to free speech in the United States is extensive and protects almost all forms of political expression. The right to free speech, however, can be limited if and when that speech seriously harms or endangers others
  • explain the argument that all rights have limits
  • explain criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights, e.g.,
    • clear and present danger rule
    • compelling government interest test
    • national security
    • libel or slander
    • public safety
    • equal opportunity
  • identify and evaluate positions on a contemporary conflict between rights, e.g., right to a fair trial and right to a free press, right to privacy and right to freedom of expression
  • identify and evaluate positions on a contemporary conflict between rights and other social values and interests, e.g., the right of the public to know what their government is doing versus the need for national security, the right to property versus the protection of the environment
V.B.4.
Civic responsibilities. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of civic responsibilities to the individual and society.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • evaluate the importance of commonly held civic responsibilities, such as
    • respecting the rights of others
    • being informed and attentive to public issues
    • monitoring political leaders and governmental agencies and taking appropriate action if their adherence to constitutional principles is lacking
  • evaluate the importance for the individual and society of fulfilling civic responsibilities
  • identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve civic responsibilities, e.g., low voter participation, avoidance of jury duty, failure to be informed about public issues
V.C.2.
Forms of political participation. Students should be able to describe the means by which Americans can monitor and influence politics and government.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain how Americans can use the following means to monitor and influence politics and government at local, state, and national levels
    • voting
    • becoming informed about public issues
    • discussing public issues
    • communicating with public officials
  • describe historical and current examples of citizen movements seeking to promote individual rights and the common good, e.g., abolition, suffrage, labor and civil rights movements
  • explain what civil disobedience is, how it differs from other forms of protest, what its consequences might be, and circumstances under which it might be justified
  • explain why becoming knowledgeable about public affairs and the values and principles of American constitutional democracy and communicating that knowledge to others is a form of political participation
V.E.3.
Knowledge and participation. Students should be able to explain the importance of knowledge to competent and responsible participation in American democracy.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain why becoming knowledgeable about public affairs and the values and principles of American constitutional democracy and communicating that knowledge to others is an important form of participation
  • evaluate the claim that constitutional democracy requires the participation of an attentive, knowledgeable, and competent citizenry
V.E.5.


Center for Civic Education, National Standards for Civics and Government (Grades 9-12)
ContentStandard
The American idea of constitutional government. Students should be able to explain the central ideas of American constitutional government and their history.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain how various provisions of the Constitution and principles of the constitutional system are devices to insure an effective government that will not exceed its limits
II.A.1.
Diversity in American society. Students should be able to evaluate, take and defend positions on issues regarding diversity in American life.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the impact on American politics, both historically and at present, of the racial, religious, socioeconomic, regional, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of American society
  • explain the importance of adhering to constitutional values and principles in managing conflicts over diversity
II.B.4.
American national identity and political culture. Students should be able to explain the importance of shared political and civic beliefs and values to the maintenance of constitutional democracy in an increasingly diverse American society.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the shared ideas and values of American political culture as set forth in
    • basic documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights
    • other sources such as The Federalist and Anti-federalist writings, the Declaration of Sentiments of the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848, Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address," Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points," Franklin Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms," Martin Luther King's "Letter from the Birmingham Jail," and many landmark decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States
II.C.1.
The public agenda. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about how the public agenda is set.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • describe how the public agenda is shaped by political leaders, political institutions, political parties, interest groups, the media, individual citizens
  • explain how individuals can help to shape the public agenda, e.g., joining interest groups or political parties, making presentations at public meetings, writing letters to newspapers and government officials
III.E.1.
Public opinion and behavior of the electorate. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the role of public opinion in American politics.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • evaluate ways that government and the media influence public opinion
III.E.2.
Political communication: television, radio, the press, and political persuasion. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the influence of the media on American political life.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the meaning and importance of freedom of the press
  • evaluate the role of television, radio, the press, newsletters, and emerging means of communication in American politics
  • compare and contrast various forms of political persuasion and discuss the extent to which traditional forms have been replaced by electronic media
  • explain how Congress, the president, and state and local public officials use the media to communicate with the citizenry
  • evaluate historical and contemporary political communication using such criteria as logical validity, factual accuracy, emotional appeal, distorted evidence, appeals to bias or prejudice, e.g.,
    • speeches such as Lincoln's "House Divided," Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Woman?", Chief Joseph's "I Shall Fight No More Forever," Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms," Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream"
    • government wartime information programs, campaign advertisements
    • political cartoons
III.E.3.
Political rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding political rights.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain the meaning of political rights as distinguished from personal rights, e.g., the right of free speech for political discussion as distinct from the right of free speech for expression of one's personal tastes and interests, or the right to register to vote as distinct from the right to live where one chooses
  • identify the major documentary statements of political rights--the Declaration of Independence, the Northwest Ordinance, the United States Constitution including the Bill of Rights, state constitutions and bills of rights, civil rights legislation, court decisions
  • explain the importance to the individual and society of such political rights as
    • freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition
    • right to vote and run for public office
  • explain how political rights are secured by constitutional government and by such means as the rule of law, checks and balances, an independent judiciary, and a vigilant citizenry
  • evaluate contemporary issues that involve political rights, e.g., proportional voting, "hate speech," access to classified information, changing the boundaries of congressional and state legislative districts
V.B.2.
Scope and limits of rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper scope and limits of rights.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain what is meant by the "scope and limits" of a right, e.g., the scope of one's right to free speech in the United States is extensive and protects almost all forms of political expression; however, the right to free speech can be limited if and when speech seriously harms or endangers others
  • evaluate the argument that all rights have limits
  • explain considerations and criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights, e.g.,
    • clear and present danger
    • compelling government interest
    • national security
    • chilling effect on the exercise of rights
    • libel or slander
    • public safety
    • equal opportunity
  • evaluate positions on contemporary conflicts between rights, e.g., the right to a fair trial and the right to a free press, the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression, one person's right to free speech versus another's right to be heard
  • evaluate positions on a contemporary conflict between rights and other social values and interests, e.g., the right of the public to know what their government is doing versus the need for national security, the right to property versus the protection of the environment
V.B.5.
Civic responsibilities. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding civic responsibilities of citizens in American constitutional democracy.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • evaluate the importance of each citizen reflecting on, criticizing, and reaffirming basic constitutional principles
  • evaluate the importance for the individual and society of
    • obeying the law
    • being informed and attentive to public issues
    • monitoring the adherence of political leaders and governmental agencies to constitutional principles and taking appropriate action if that adherence is lacking
    • registering to vote and voting knowledgeably on candidates and issues
V.C.2.
Forms of political participation. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions about the means that citizens should use to monitor and influence the formation and implementation of public policy.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • describe the many ways citizens can participate in the political process at local, state, and national levels
  • describe historical and current examples of citizen movements seeking to expand liberty, to insure the equal rights of all citizens, and/or to realize other values fundamental to American constitutional democracy, such as the suffrage and civil rights movements
  • explain what civil disobedience is, how it differs from other forms of protest, what its consequences might be, and evaluate the circumstances under which it might be justified
  • evaluate the importance of voting as a form of political participation
  • evaluate the usefulness of other forms of political participation in influencing public policy, e.g., attending political and governmental meetings, filing a legal challenge, demonstrating, contacting public officials, working in campaigns, contributing money to political parties or causes, writing letters, boycotting, community organizing, petitioning, picketing, expressing opinions on talk shows, running for political office
V.E.3.
Knowledge and participation. Students should be able to explain the importance of knowledge to competent and responsible participation in American democracy.

To achieve this standard, students should be able to
  • explain why becoming knowledgeable about public affairs and the values and principles of American constitutional democracy and communicating that knowledge to others is an important form of participation
  • evaluate the claim that constitutional democracy requires the participation of an attentive, knowledgeable, and competent citizenry
V.E.5.


HISTORY

National Center for History in the Schools, National Standards for United States History (Grades 5-12)
ContentStandard
The student understands the guarantees of the Bill of Rights and its continuing significance.

5-12 Analyze the significance of the Bill of Rights and its specific guarantees. [Examine the influence of ideas]

9-12 Analyze whether the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 threatened First Amendment rights and the issues the Alien and Sedition Acts posed in the absence of judicial review of acts of Congress. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

9-12 Analyze issues addressed in recent court cases involving the Bill of Rights to assess their continuing significance today. [Identify relevant historical antecedents]
Era 3, Standard 3B
The student understands how postwar science augmented the nation’s economic strength, transformed daily life, and influenced the world economy.

9-12 Examine how American technology ushered in the communications revolution and assess its global influence. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]
Era 9, Standard 1C
The student understands the “Second Reconstruction” and its advancement of civil rights.

7-12 Explain the origins of the postwar civil rights movement and the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on segregation. [Analyze multiple causation]

5-12 Explain the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965. [Identify issues and problems in the past]

7-12 Analyze the leadership and ideology of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X in the civil rights movement and evaluate their legacies. [Assess the importance of the individual in history]

7-12 Assess the role of the legislative and executive branches in advancing the civil rights movement and the effect of shifting the focus from de jure to de facto segregation. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]
Era 9, Standard 4A
The student understands domestic politics from Nixon to Carter.

5-12 Explain the Nixon administration’s involvement in Watergate and examine the role of the media in exposing the scandal. [Formulate historical questions]

9-12 Analyze the constitutional issues raised by the Watergate affair and evaluate the effects of Watergate on public opinion. [Examine the influence of ideas]
Era 10, Standard 1A
The student understands contemporary American culture.

7-12 Explain the influence of media on contemporary American culture. [Explain historical continuity and change]
Era 10, Standard 2D


National Center for History in the Schools, National Standards for World History (Grades 5-12)
ContentStandard
The student understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II.

5-12 Explain how new technologies and scientific breakthroughs both benefited and imperiled humankind. [Formulate historical questions]
Era 8, Standard 5
The student understands why global power shifts took place and the Cold War broke out in the aftermath of World War II.

7-12 Analyze major differences in the political ideologies and values of the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc. [Compare and contrast different ideas, values, and institutions]

9-12 Assess the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world. [Obtain historical data from a variety of sources]
Era 9, Standard 1B
The student understands how liberal democracy, market economies, and human rights movements have reshaped political and social life.

7-12 Explain why the Soviet and other communist governments collapsed and the Soviet Union splintered into numerous states in the 1980s and early 1990s. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]
Era 9, Standard 2C
The student understands worldwide cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century.

5-12 Assess the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide. [Formulate historical questions]

7-12 Analyze connections among electronic communications, international marketing, and the emergence of popular “global culture” in the late 20th century. [Obtain historical data from a variety of sources]
Era 9, Standard 2F
The student understands major global trends since World War II.

7-12 Explain why the Cold War took place and ended and assess its significance as a 20th-century event. [Analyze multiple causation]

5-12 Assess the degree to which both human rights and democratic ideals and practices have been advanced in the world during the 20th century. [Formulate historical questions]
Era 9, Standard 3


COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

Common Core Standards for English Language Arts (6-12)
ContentStandard
Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.Speaking and Listening, 1.
Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.Speaking and Listening, 2.
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.Speaking and Listening, 4.


Common Core Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (6-12)
ContentStandard
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.Reading, 7.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.Reading, 8.