Holocaust: The Untold Story
  SCRIPT

OPEN

Universal Newsreel

200 UN 18-393-1

Cut 10/ Nordhausen

April 1945

(NAT/NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER)

"For the first time, Americans can believe what they thought was impossible propaganda."

Abe Rosenthal

"If you look through the coverage, it was wrong, it was morally and journalistically wrong!"

(MUSIC)

SOT/ ANDY ROONEY

1:02:08 — 2:12

Coming on them was a surprise and a shock to everyone.

Universal Newsreel

Cut 10/ Buchenwald

(NAT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER)

"Don’t turn away, look!…Horror unbelievable.

SOT/ Abe Rosenthal

1:11:10 — 11:29

Oh I was shocked alright… and the pictures turned your stomach, turned your soul, rotted your heart really to look at them."

liberation — film & photos

THE COMMON BELIEF THAT HITLER’S DEATH CAMPS WERE A SECRET — IS A MYTH. (:06)

SOT/LIPSTADT

The claim// that Americans didn’t know is simply not true.

NEWSPAPERS KNEW THE NAZIS WERE MURDERING MILLIONS OF JEWS, BUT EDITORS STILL BURIED THE STORY ON THE BACK PAGES. (:08)

SOT/ MICHAEL BERENBAUM

2:25:36

It’s the difference between saying // a million people have died, and //saying A MILLION PEOPLE HAVE DIED!

SOT/ KALB

There is no doubt in my mind that lives could have been saved if the press focused on this story…

SOT/ NESSIE

3:06:39 — (6:47) — 6:59

2nd half can stand alone

Why did I have to wait all those years as a kid and cry my eyes out to be free? // What happened to the world? Why did they not speak up?

"HOLOCAUST: THE UNTOLD STORY." (:06)

OPEN ANIMATION MUSIC

BA Color film of Hitler at Buckeberg

 

 

 

BA refugees walking

ADOLPH HITLER’S MASTER PLAN FOR THE CONQUEST OF EUROPE INVOLVES TWO WARS: ONE TARGETING THE ALLIES, AND ONE TARGETING JEWS. (:10)

THE NAZIS TAKES AWAY THEIR RIGHTS…

… THEIR PROPERTY

… THEIR FREEDOM. (:06)

SOT/NESSIE GODIN
BA refugees walking

I remember how scared I was. I remember how petrified the Jewish community was.

NARA 2 people stand by broken window
AP group stands by broken window
NYT man looks up at broken window
NYT woman looks back at window

NOVEMBER 1938. KRISTALNACHT. {kriss — TAHL — knocked]

THE NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS.

GERMANY’S WAR ON THE JEWS TURNS VIOLENT. (:09)

SOT/ ERNEST MICHEL

1:08:59—1:09:03 // 1:07:37—1:07:42//
1:07:54 — 1:08:00

EM photo of Ernest and father
BA synagogue burns

Ernest Michel
Holocaust Survivor

 

 

That’s a night I will remember every moment of// My father was arrested. The apartment was broken into, ransacked.// synagogues were burned and dynamited.

 

SOT/ RICHARD C. HOTTELET

UP REPORTER

1:16:04 — 1:16:11 // 1:15:14 —1:15:18

USHMM wide of synagogue damage
USHMM tight of synagogue damage

They were in full swing smashing the windows. // The damage was all done by storm troopers and SS men.

SOT/ RICHARD HOTTELET

1:17:28 — 1:17:30 // 1:17:52 — 1:17:55
// 1:17:22 — 1:17:28

Richard C. Hottelet

War Correspondent, UP and CBS

It was a big story. // This was the sign that they were turning to violence on a large scale.

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

1:02:20 — 1:02:23 // 1:01:59 — 1:02:14


Deborah Lipstadt
Emory University


UMI PRINT
Philadelphia Inquirer 11/11/38 p. 1
"Nazi Mobs Riot Against Jews"
(BA man dragged across street projected)

It was front page news in virtually every paper in the United States and not just on the day of the event but for days following. // The press was SHOCKED by Kristallnacht

ORIGINAL (photo-duplicate)
Dallas Morning News 11/11/38 p. 1
"Hysterical Nazi Wreck Thousands of Jewish Shops, Burn Synagogues in Wild Orgy of Looting and Terror"

(NARA Hitler waving projected)


ORIGINAL
New York Times 2/14/43 pp. 36-37
"Execution Speed Up Seen"
(NARA Hitler waving projected)

New York Times 5/18/42 p. 4
Chicago Tribune 6/30/42 p. 6

THIS BOLD COVERAGE SHOULD HAVE SET THE STANDARD FOR REPORTING THE HORRORS TO COME. (:06)

BUT AS EXECUTION REPLACES PERSECUTION…

… THE STORY FADES INTO THE NEWSPAPERS BACK PAGES. (:10)

AS THE DEATH TOLL GROWS…

… THE HEADLINES SHRINK. (:05)

SOT MICHAEL BARENBAUM 1:06:03—6:22 //1:21:18 — 21:23

Michael Berenbaum

Holocaust Scholar


NARA man buys paper

A Films people listening to radios

NARA man at newsstand

I think it’s important to understand that in the 1930s and 1940s, newspapers had a near monopoly on the way in which we gathered information. Radio // There was no television. // And among newspapers, the most respected of all newspapers was The New York Times.

A Films NYT building
A Films people in newsroom
A Films man typing
A Films men working in newsroom

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER:)

"Ranking high among 2,015 U.S. daily newspapers is the 89-year-old New York Times, respected everywhere for its independence and famed for the completeness of its worldwide news coverage…"

ORIGINAL
New York Times 7/2/42 Masthead

NYT 7/2/42 p. 6
"700,000 Victims Listed"

(NARA Hitler speaking projected)

CU "700,000"
CU "death"

CU "gas"

CU "massacred"

THE NEW YORK TIMES’ COVERAGE IS TYPICAL OF HOW NEWSPAPERS HANDLED THE STORY.

JULY 2ND, 1942.

HIDDEN ON PAGE SIX — THE TIMES DETAILS THE MURDER OF SEVEN-HUNDRED-THOUSAND JEWS. (:15)

THE ARTICLE EXPOSES THE USE OF GAS CHAMBERS TO EXPEDITE THE MASSACERS.
(:06)

ORIGINAL
NYT 7/2/42 p. 1
"Lehman Ends Tennis; Shoes to Rubber.."
(NARA Planes in air projected)

IN THE SAME EDITION — HIGH ON THE FRONT PAGE — A LIGHT FEATURE ABOUT NEW YORK’S GOVENOR DONATING HIS TENNIS SHOES TO THE WAR EFFORT.(:09)

SOT/ MARVIN KALB
1:17:49 HOL 0099

Marvin Kalb

Harvard University

LC photo of NYT on typewriter

 

During WWII as today, it is the most respected newspaper in America, it is the newspaper of record. Therefore other journalists look to The New York Times to take leads.

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

1:12:42 — 12:58

A.M. Rosenthal

New York Times 1943-1999

AMR Tilt up photo of AMR

I don’t recall ever saying to myself, ‘gee, that story isn’t covered well enough or big enough.’ I was a reporter covering New York and enjoying myself and counting myself so lucky to work at The New York Times that I should be paying them.

AMR MS of AMR with pipe

AMR Cut to wide shot in same room

ABE ROSENTHAL JOINED THE TIMES STAFF AS A COLLEGE STUDENT DURING THE WAR.

EVENTUALLY HE BECAME THE PAPER’S FIRST JEWISH MANAGING EDITOR. (:09)

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

#1 @ 1:22:16 — 22:22

They used to say about The New York Times, the paper is owned by Jews, edited by Catholics, for Protestants.

AP AMR in 70’s as editor

DECADES LATER, THIS LEGENDARY NEWSMAN REVIEWED THE TIMES HOLOCAUST COVERAGE. (:06)

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

1:18:05 - 18:15 // 24:42 - 24:48

UMI PRINT

NYT 4/6/42 p. 2
"Reports Nazi Slaughter of Jews"
(NARA line of people projected)

…it was no good. It was paltry. It was embarrassing.// It was wrong. It was morally and journalistically wrong.

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

1:06:20 — 6:29 // 1:34:03 — 34:10


Deborah Lipstadt

Emory University

UMI PRINT

NYT 10/22/39 p. 36
"2,000 Jews Sent From Vienna"
(LC Guard tower from camp projected)

The claim that’s often made that Americans didn’t know is simply not true. People forget how much was there or they never put it together. // If you’re willing to use little stories and buried stories, you can tell the history of the Holocaust from the American press.

 

GRAPHIC


NYT 10/26/41 p. 6
"Slaying of Jews in Galicia"

(NEWSPAPER VOICE)
"Reports tell of victims being machine-gunned as they prayed in their synagogues." OCTOBER 26, 1941… THE NEW YORK TIMES…PAGE 6.

DIP TO BLACK

(MUSIC FULL)

LC Soviet film of civilians killed

 

 

NARA German military
LC photo of Eins. execution

"THE HOLOCAUST" BEGINS DURING THE SUMMER OF 1941 WHEN HITLER INVADES THE SOVIET UNION. (:06)

GERMANY’S REGULAR ARMY THUNDERS EAST FOLLOWED BY "EINZATSGRUPPEN" [INE —zahtz-GROOP-en] OR "SPECIAL ACTION UNITS".

THEIR PRIMARY JOB: TO KILL JEWS. (:12)

SOT/ NESSE GODIN

1:06:05 — 6:13 // 1:04:25 — 1:04:44
// 1:04:48 — 5:06

Nesse Godin

Holocaust Survivor

USHMM photo of Jewish men lined up

Jewish men and boys were grabbed off the street // taken to a forest near our city, Kuziai, where they were forced to get undressed naked. They were forced to dig big holes. They were lined up. They were shot. They fell into the pit. And they were covered with earth.

(MUSIC)

LC Soviet film of bodies in pit

THE NAZIS MASSACRE MORE THAN A MILLION JEWS THIS WAY. (:04)

LC bodies lined up/people
LC woman kneels over body

MASS MURDER OF CIVILIANS SHOULD BE A MAJOR NEWS STORY.

BUT JOURNALISTS ARE SKEPTICAL. (:08)

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

1:11:57 — 12:00 // 12:07 — 12:18/21


NYT 10/28/41 p. 10
"Nazis Seek to Rid Europe
of All Jews"

NOVOSTY Einzatzgruppen execution

There was something unbelievable about the story. // If you tell me they’re suffering, if you tell me they’re starving, if you tell me they’re in camps, that I can believe. But this kind of rampant, systematic murder, that’s not something I expect of the Germans. Of the Japanese, maybe. But not the Germans.

TRANSITION TO US ENTERS WAR

NARA Pearl Harbor attack scenes

(NAT/ PEARL HARBOR ATTACK)

NARA FDR audio
NARA ships burning & sinking

12-8-41 FDR SPEECH
(NAT/ FDR) "Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date that will live in infamy…"

A Films Pouring hot metal
A Films US planes in air
A Films AUDIO Andrew’s Sisters music

(MUSIC)

"Let’s load that ore on the train, let’s turn that steel into planes, we’ve got a job to do."

A Films Newspaper production

PEARL HARBOR DRAGS THE U.S. INTO THE WAR, AND THE MEDIA MOBILIZE TO BRING THE BATTLE-FRONT HOME. (:06)

UCLA Soldiers marching
A Films Loading military truck on ship

(SOT / WAR NEWSREEL)
"America today is on the march with all the other freedom loving peoples of the world…"

NARA People read NYT headlines
NARA Man opens newspaper

THE WAR IS THE NUMBER-ONE TOPIC ON AMERICA’S MIND . . . AND PAGE ONE NEWS EVERYDAY. (:06)

SOT/ MARVIN KALB
1:04:30

Marvin Kalb
Harvard University

FOX White House press corps

The press corps at the time was (very lame, very patriotic,) very much attuned to the principal objectives of the administration. Mainly the unconditional surrender of the enemy. They weren’t thinking of anything else.

USHMM photos from Chelmno
TILT DOWN
PULL OUT


USHMM photo of gas van

 

 

THE DAY AFTER PEARL HARBOR, AT A SECRET CAMP NEAR THE POLISH VILLAGE OF

CHELMNO [(H)ELLM-noe (gutteral H)]

GERMAN DEATH SQUADS TEST A NEW TECHNIQUE.

THEY MURDER A THOUSAND JEWS — MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN — BY GASSING THEM INSIDE SPECIALLY EQUIPPED VANS.

IT’S CHEAPER AND MORE EFFICIENT THAN GUNS. (:21)

DIP TO BLACK

AT photo of Thuermer in Berlin
AT photo of journalists & suitcases

 

NARA crowd gives Heil Hitler
NARA large crowd greets Hitler
NARA crowd gives Heil Hitler

THE SAME DAY AMERICAN REPORTERS IN BERLIN ARE ROUNDED UP BY THE GESTAPO, IMPRISONED, AND ULTIMATELY EXPELLED.

WITH EUROPE IN HITLER’S GRIP, JOURNALISTS MUST RELY ON OFFICIAL ALLIED REPORTS.

(:13)

A Films man writes info. on board

A Films press conference
NARA man stamps news script

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER)

"…from almost continuous press conferences in the Ministry of Information at London came the rigidly censored official communiqués on the course of the battle…"

RCH photo of Hottelet on phone
RCH photo of Hottelet with pipe

 

 

 

UMI PRINT

NYT 3/16/41 p. 4
"US Acts on Writer Seized by Gestapo"

1:09:09

RICHARD C. HOTTELET [HOTT-uh-let] IS AMONG THE MANY JOURNALISTS SILENCED BY THE NAZI’S.

1:09:14

WITNESSING JEWS BEING DEPORTED, HOTTLET WRITES WHAT HE’S SEEN, AND PAYS A PRICE FOR AGGRESSIVE REPORTING. (:12)

SOT/HOTTLET

1:22:15 —

Richard C. Hottelet
War Correspondent, UP and CBS

I remember covering one of these things with a colleague// and we were sort of loaded on trucks along with all these other Jews accused of nothing, just ‘come along here you’ and when we got to the police station//.

We identified ourselves as Americans and were told to get lost. But the others// I imagine went to concentration camps,

Hottelet Graphic

NEWSPAPER VOICE

"…the crowd outside shouted and jeered, ‘Die like dogs, Jews!’, and unprintable epithets. The police began yelling to Jews ‘Pile in! Get on top of one another if necessary!’"

June 17, 1938

New York Post

Page 24

HOTTELET’S AGGRESSIVE REPORTING JEOPARDIZES HIS OWN SAFETY. (:04)

SOT/ HOTTELET

1:24:14 — 24:24

In 1941 // I was suddenly arrested. A knock on the door at 3:00 in the morning and secret police and "come with us."

…and I found I was being accused of espionage.

RCH photo of Hottelet on jeep

AFTER SPENDING FOUR MONTHS IN A GERMAN PRISON, HOTTELET TAKES A JOB WRITING ALLIED PROPAGANDA FOR THE U.S. "OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION" — OR O-W-I. (:10)

SOT/ HOTTELET

1:12:35 — 1:12:40 // 1:13:00 — 13:05


NARA CU Hitler making speech
NARA Goering and Nazi crowd

What we were concentrating on was the nature of Nazism. // (HITLER NATS) // That was the thrust of our propaganda.

USHMM photo of female executions

"O-W-I" CALLS ATTENTION TO NAZI ATROCITIES…

…WITHOUT SPOTLIGHTING THE JEWISH ANGLE.

A PATTERN REPEATED AT NEWSPAPERS. (:09)

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:15:04 — 15:15

Dr. Rafael Medoff

Prof. of Jewish Studies, S.U.N.Y., Purchase

Seattle Daily Times 6/26/42 p. 30
"700,000 Jews Reported Slain"

It was in the back pages instead of in the front pages. And that affected a level of public consciousness and public interest in the issue. Fewer people read about it if it was in the back pages and fewer people cared.

GRAPHIC

NYT 3/14/42 p. 7
"Terror of Nazism in Balkans Told"

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

"…people ranging from 3-week-old infants to persons of 80 were packed into cattle cars…50 percent of them died or were killed by the Gestapo." MARCH 14, 1942… THE NEW YORK TIMES…PAGE 7.

ORIGINAL (Photo-duplicate)
The Jewish News 6/19/42 p.1

"60,000 Vilna Jews Massacred"

ALTHOUGH THE AMERICAN JEWISH PRESS RUNS BANNER HEADLINES LIKE THIS, THE MAINSTREAM PRESS IGNORES THE STORY. (:08)

Voice of: Quincy Howe
CBS Radio Broadcast June 29, 1942

BA pan of Jewish men

(SOT/ QUINCY HOWE ON CBS:)

It is now estimated that the Germans have massacred more than one million Jews in Europe since the war began. That’s about one sixth of the Jewish population in the Old World.

UMI PRINT
Seattle Daily Times 6/29/42 p. 1

"Jewish Executions Put at Million"
(NARA emaciated man projected)

NYT 6/27/42 p. 5 (bottom left)
"700,000 Jews" (no headline)


CU "700,000"

CU "greatest mass slaughter"

IN JUNE 1942, THE RISING JEWISH DEATH TOLL PUSHES THE NEWS INTO PUBLIC VIEW. (;07)

 

 

THE NEW YORK TIMES BURIES ITS FIRST ACCOUNT OF THE "FINAL SOLUTION" ON PAGE FIVE. (:07)

IT DESCRIBES THE KILLING OF 700-THOUSAND JEWS AS "THE GREATEST MASS SLAUGHTER IN HISTORY." (:07)

A Films hands typing

A Films sorting scripts

A Films editing copy

HOW COULD RESPONSIBLE EDITORS BURY SUCH AN IMPORTANT STORY. (:05)

HISTORIANS SAY ONE REASON IS ANTI-SEMITISM (:06)

SOT/ RUTH GRUBER

1:22:56-23:26

Ruth Gruber

Interior Department, 1941-1946

It was a period of virulent anti-Semitism which played a role even in our government in the top echelons of various departments but especially at the State Department.

SOT/ RUTH GRUBER

1:20:42 — 21:19

 

6-26-40 LONG MEMO

Long photo & memo — highlight line

Jews were knocking on doors of consulates all over the world begging to enter the United States. // And it was the Assistant Secretary of State in charge of visas — in effect in charge of life and death // His name was Breckenridge Long. He actually sent messages to consulates all over the world // "Delay…delay…delay."

SOT/ GRUBER

1:21:29 — 21:37

Even if they have numbers, even if they have visas, keep delaying, keep.. Jews.. out."

MANY NEWSPAPER EDITORS ARE OPENLY ANTI-SEMITIC, AND SUPPORT THE ADMINISTRATIONS POLICY OF RESTRICTING JEWISH IMMIGRATION. (:09)

JOURNALISTS ARE ALSO SKEPTICAL OF ATROCITY STORIES, BECAUSE THERE ARE NO PHOTOGRAPHS OR EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS. AND THEY’D BEEN FOOLED BEFORE. (:10)

SOT/ ANDY ROONEY

1:00:18 — 1:00:37

Andy Rooney

Stars and Stripes

NARA WWI battle scenes

I recall hearing about World War I from my father and how so many of the so-called German atrocities were faked by our own people trying to propagandize us into fighting the war.

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

24:01 — 24:14

Deborah Lipstadt
Emory University

AF man rips teletype

(But) there was enough detail here that I think they could have believed far more and they could have treated things far more seriously, particularly when you compare how they covered other stories.

NARA Reichstag meeting
NARA Crowd Heil Hitler
NARA Hitler at podium



UMI PRINT

Chicago Tribune 6/14/42 p. 1
"Hitler Guards Stage New Pogrom;
Kill 258"

DEBORAH LIPSTADT [ LIP-statt ]ANALYZED HUNDREDS OF HOLOCAUST NEWS STORIES.

SHE SAYS EDITORS CONSISTENTLY GAVE MORE CREDENCE TO NAZI REPORTS THAN THOSE FROM JEWISH SOURCES. (:12)

FOR EXAMPLE: WHEN THE GERMANS TAKE CREDIT FOR KILLING 258 JEWS IN BERLIN— IT HITS THE FRONT PAGE — IN THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE. (:09)

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT
1:17:40 — 17:48

The 258 came from the perpetrators, so the Gestapo said we killed these 258 so there was no doubting it.

UMI PRINT
Chicago Tribune 6/30/42 p. 6
"Estimate 1 Million Jews Died Victims
of Nazis"


CU of headline
(LC projected mass grave)

TWO WEEKS LATER — JEWISH GROUPS DECRY MORE THAN A MILLION DEAD.

THE TRIBUNE RUNS THE STORY ON PAGE SIX AS IF IT WERE FILLER. (:09)

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

1:18:58 — 1:19:10

So it was eminently missible — page 6 at the bottom of the page and / if you saw it, it was dismissible. You could dismiss it as — this can’t be true because if it were, a story of this magnitude would be on page one.

SOT/BERENBAUM

2:25:36 — 25:45 // 1:28:25 — 28:35

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

NYT 6/30/42 p. 7
"1,000,000 Jews Slain by Nazis
Report Says"

LC Soviet film of frozen bodies lines up

 

It’s the difference between my turning to you and saying you know a million people have died and my turning to you saying "A MILLION PEOPLE HAVE DIED!"// Obviously the murder of a million people — if it’s really believed — is ONE HELL of an important story.

FADE TO BLACK

(MUSIC)

NARA German military



BA Jews in ghettos

HITLER IS NOW WAGING TWO WARS. (:03)

ONE AGAINST THE ALLIES…

AND ONE AGAINST JEWS. (:04)

BUT WORD OF HIS "FINAL SOLUTION" LEAKS OUT. (:04)

SOT/ MICHAEL BERENBAUM

2:03:00 — 3:15

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar


USHMM Reigner photo
AJA CU telegram

In August 1942, a telegram was sent by Gerhardt Reigner [Gair-hart RIG-ner] of the World Jewish Congress which says // that in Fuhrer’s headquarters there is a plan under discussion for the murder of all European Jews.

Am. Jewish Arch. Full telegram

A Films State Dept exterior

A Films man stamps document

 

NARA Memo 61 "Do Not Send"

USC dissolve to Wise photo

THE STATE DEPARTMENT RECEIVES REIGNER’S TELEGRAM. NOW - THE SAME AGENCY THAT IS PREVENTING JEWISH IMMIGRATION STARTS SUPPRESSING VITAL INFORMATION.

BUREAUCRATS DELIBERATELY WITHHOLD THE DISTURBING TELEGRAM FROM ITS INTENDED RECIPIENT — RABBI STEPHEN WISE.. PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN JEWISH CONGRESS. (:21)

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:31:20 — 31:41 w/ cuts

LC Stephen Wise with hand on face

Dr. Rafael Medoff
Prof. of Jewish Studies, S.U.N.Y., Purchase

Stephen Wise was unquestionably the most prominent Jewish leader in the United States. // And perhaps most importantly, he had a relationship with Franklin Roosevelt which gave him occasional access to the White House.

LC photo of Wise at desk

WHEN WISE LEARNS OF THE TELEGRAM, THE STATE DEPARTMENT BEGS HIM NOT TO GO PUBLIC — PENDING FURTHER INVESTIGATION. (:08)

SOT/ BERENBAUM

2:12:18 — 2:12:28

In November — after a 3-month delay, the State Department came back to Rabbi Wise and they told him ‘we can confirm your deepest fears.’

ORIGINAL
NYT 11/25/42 p. 10

WISE IMMEDIATELY GOES PUBLIC WITH THE INCREDIBLE NEWS.

THE NEW YORK TIMES PUTS HIS ANNOUNCEMENT ON PAGE TEN. (:07)

ORIGINAL
NYT 12/18/42 p. 1
"11 Allies Condemn Nazi War on Jews"

WEEKS LATER — THE ALLIES OFFICIALLY CONDEMN THE NAZI "WAR ON THE JEWS."

ONLY NOW DOES THE "FINAL SOLUTION" HIT THE TIMES FRONT PAGE. (:11)

GRAPHIC

NYT 12/18/42 p. 1,10

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)
"In Poland…the principal Nazi slaughterhouse, the ghettos…are being systematically emptied…None of those taken away are ever heard from again." DECEMBER 18, 1942…THE NEW YORK TIMES… page 1.

UMI PRINT
NYT EDITORIAL 12/18/42

"Hitler’s Terror"

CU "helplessness"
CU "horror"

THE TIMES EDITORIAL PAGE LAMENTS THE WORLDS "HELPLESSNESS TO STOP THE HORROR." (:06)

 

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:14:32

It wasn’t a matter of there not being the information out there, the problem was that the information was down played, or minimized.

NARA Jews being rounded up



L.A. Times 12/18/42 p. 4
"Jews Given Allied Pledge"

Washington Post 12/18/42 p. 10
"Allies Condemn Axis Crime Against Jews"

THE ALLIED DECLARATION SHOULD HAVE MARKED A TURNING POINT IN KNOWLEDGE OF THE HOLOCAUST.

BUT MANY PAPERS FAIL TO GIVE THE STORY THE SIGNIFICANCE ITS DUE.

THE LOS ANGELES TIMES PRINTS IT ON PAGE FOUR, THE WASHINGTON POST ON PAGE TEN. (:18)

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

2:05:41 — 5:43 // 2:05:55 — 6:07

NYT newsroom photo

If the Times had come out big on this // that would have brought a lot more attention in the country. However, I don’t think that absolves the editors of those other papers.

SOT/ RAFAEL MEDOFF

1:14:40

UCLA FDR speaks at meeting

The Roosevelt Administration didn’t want to play it up. They didn’t want people talking about it too much because that would create pressure for Roosevelt to take some kind of concrete action to aid the Jews.

SOT/ RUTH GRUBER

1:22:22 — 1:22:36

Ruth Gruber

Interior Department, 1941-1946

 

NARA WWII battle scenes

 

Roosevelt was worried. He didn’t want the New Deal to be called the Jew Deal. He didn’t want people to say that we’re fighting the war just for the damned Jews.

NARA WWII battle scenes
LC George Stevens color allied attack

ORIGINAL
NYT 6/27/42 p. 1
"Germans Gain, Red Armies Hold Intact; Rommel Forces 30 Miles…"

THE WHITE HOUSE SAYS THE ONLY WAY TO HELP THE JEWS IS TO WIN THE WAR.

THE BATTLE GETS TOP PRIORITY — AND BANNER HEADLINES. (:10)

SOT/ LAUREL LEFF

2:29:36 — 2:29:50

Laurel Leff

Prof. of Journalism, Northeastern Univ.


If you read just the front page of The New York Times during those six years, you really wouldn’t have known what was going on. If you read the inside papers of The New York Times you would have a complete understanding of what was happening which I guess is the paradox.

FF Laurel Leff at archives

LAUREL LEFF, A JOURNALISM PROFESSOR, STUDIED EVERY EDITION OF THE TIMES FROM 1939 TO 1945.

(:10)

UMI PRINT
NYT 5/10/44 p. 5
"Jews in Hungary Fear Annihilation"

ORIGINAL
NYT 8/30/44 p. 1
"Nazi Mass Killing Laid Bare in Camp"

UMI PRINT
NYT 10/26/41 p. 6
"Slaying of Jews in Galacia"

SHE COUNTS MORE THAN ELEVEN-HUNDRED STORIES RELATING TO THE HOLOCAUST — ABOUT ONE EVERY OTHER DAY.

BUT THE SLAUGHTER OF JEWS MADE THE FRONT PAGE ONLY SIX TIMES — ABOUT ONCE A YEAR.

MOST STORIES ARE LOST INSIDE THE PAPER. (:17).

SOT/ LEFF

2:10:56

NYT 6/30/42 pp. 6-7
"1,000,000 Jews Slain…"

CU headline

I counted sometimes, I mean sometimes they had over 30 stories on the inside page. Tiny little items, tiny little headlines, often there wouldn’t be a photo or something to kind of help you. SO you’d look at the insdie andit was likea mish mash and in the mish mash would nbe a fairly significant story.

SOT/ ROSENTHAL

1:17:09 - 17:22 // 1:23:36 - 23:45


NARA NYT sign
A Films Journalists working

I assure you, nobody put a sign on the wall that said downplay the Holocaust // It's the way of life. You have an organization. Sometimes things are not said, they're just done.

Face of Jewish man
NARA Jews with stars on street
BA row of young Jewish men

MUSIC/MONTAGE

A Films NYT printing press



AJA photo of AHS at desk

HISTORIANS AND FORMER TIMES EMPLOYEES BELIEVE THE PAPER’S EDITORIAL PHILOSOPHY ON JEWISH STORIES FLOWED FROM THE TOP…

…PUBLISHER ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER, [SULZ —burger] HIMSELF A JEW. (:13)

SOT/ BERENBAUM

1:25:35 — 25:51 // 26:04 — 26:12

AJA CU photo of AHS at desk

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

He was fearful that somebody would see The New York Times as a Jewish newspaper and consequently he was afraid to be out front on issues that were regarded as Jewish for fear that he would compromise the integrity of The New York Times.

SOT/KALB 1:12:10-1:12:20

CORBIS photo of NYT building
NYT photo of Adolph Ochs


SOT/KALB 1:11:41-1:11:50

Marvin Kalb
Harvard University

(VO) Despite the fact that the NYT was and has been owned by a Jewish family from Adolph Ochs 100 years ago to today…


(O/C) He didn’t want to be seen as a Jewish newspaper, as a newspaper that would emphasize Jewish causes.

SOT/ LEFF

2:16:50 — 2:17:21

LC photo of NYT workers

What I think is clear from looking at the internal memos is that the editors at the Times understood that this was a sensitivity of his and in fact were nervous about it.

photo of AHS

SULZBERGER IS VOCAL IN HIS CONVICTION THAT JEWS SHOULD NOT BE IDENTIFIED SOLELY BY THEIR RELIGION. (:06)

SOT/ LEFF

27:10 — 27:18

NARA traditional Jewish dinner

What that means is that Jews should not be singled out in any way. Whether it was for persecution or for salvation.

NARA Jewish community

SOME IN THE JEWISH COMMUNITY CHALLENGE SULZBERGER’S VIEW — AND THE WAY IT INFLUENCES THE TIMES’ NEWS COVERAGE.(:08)

GRAPHIC
The Jewish Times
of Philadelphia

12/31/43 p. 1

"Editorial"

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

"…when the doomed Jews of the Warsaw ghetto were in their last desperate struggle against their tormentors…with their bare fists battled for days against artillery gunfire and hand-grenades…the "Times" featured the news in a way as if no Jews were involved…" DECEMBER 31, 1943…THE JEWISH TIMES…EDITORIAL.

SOT/ BERENBAUM

2:29:07 — 2:29:25


NARA Jews with yellow stars

You missed the story unless you said the slaughter of Jews is taking place. Jews — not because they’re citizens of Poland or Denmark or Hungary or Rumania but Jews because they’re Jews.

photo of AHS

 

A Films Palestine film

SULZBERGER DOES OFFER HELP BEHIND THE SCENES.

HE WORKS TO FIND HAVENS FOR EUROPEAN JEWS OUTSIDE THE U.S. — ALTHOUGH HE OPPOSES THE ZIONIST GOAL OF ESTABLISHING A JEWISH HOMELAND IN PALESTINE. (:15)

SOT/ LEFF

2:28:51 — 2:29:14

photo of AHS at podium

As he said several places // the best hope for the Jews is if they can connect their fate to that of other people. // so I’m not saying this comes from an indifference or a callousness. I mean, ultimately it may not have been the wisest of policies.

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

1:25:51 — 26:08 titen acc’g to script

A.M. Rosenthal

New York Times, 1943-1999

I don’t think we did what we would do now about such as that // which is to go out and investigate the hell out of it. I mean// people say they’re killing the Jews, well I don’t know, well let’s find out.

TRANSITION

(NAT/ NEWSREELS)

NARA German surrender in Stalingrad

(NAT/NEWSREEL)
IN EARLY 1943 THE ALLIES FIRST BIG VICTORIES AT STALINGRAD… AND IN NORTH AFRICA TRIGGER EXCITED COVERAGE. (:10)

NARA Germans surrender in North Africa

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER:)

"Thousands upon thousands of Italian and German troops lay down their arms and surrender…"

NAA Westerbork deportation

NAA Trains

 

 

 

ORIGINAL
NYT 2/14/43 p. 17
"Execution Speed Up Seen"

DESPITE BATTLEFIELD SETBACKS, MURDERING JEWS REMAINS A TOP GERMAN PRIORITY.

EVEN WITH LABOR AND RESOURCES IN SHORT SUPPLY, THE WAR ON THE JEWS TAKES PRECEDENCE.

IN THE U.S. — EDITORS REDUCE HORROR TO BACK-PAGE STATISTICS.

THIS STORY RAN ON PAGE 37.

THE REALITY IS FAR MORE DRAMATIC. (:25)+

SOT/ MICHEL

1:26:23 — 26:43 // 1:26:51 — 1:27:06 // 1:27:39 — 1:27:44 // 1:28:25 — 28:33 // 1:28:49 — 1:29:06

AUS. MUS. floor plans
NAA Train tracks
USHMM Jews with yellow stars
USHMM Jews by trains
MJH Young Earnst
USHMM Dr. Mengele
USHMM inmate photos
USHMM old man
USHMM grandma with children
AUS. MUS. oven plan
LC bones in oven

Ernest Michel

Holocaust Survivor

 

We arrived in Auschwitz at night. // There were noises and dogs and screaming, kleigh lights, out Juden(?)! It was an inferno! // Husbands looking for their wives, for their children, their mothers. // and there was SS man. And he went like this (thumb up) or he went like this (thumb down) We didn’t know what that was. // I was 20 years old, still in good shape. So the thumb went up. (And the person who did the selection was Dr. Mengele.) // They had all the inmates take care of all the work. He says ‘you’re the lucky ones.’ We says, ‘what do you mean we’re the lucky ones?’ (In German) — The others are already up the chimney.

FADE TO BLACK

BA emaciated barefooted man
BA two girls in Warsaw ghetto

UCLA Jews walking with bundles
NAA Trains
UCLA Jews by trains

NARA journalists work

BY EARLY 1943, THE EXTENT OF HITLER’S "WAR ON THE JEWS" IS CLEAR.

BUT THE PRESS DOWNPLAYS THE STORY TO FOCUS ON COMBAT. (:11)

NARA Jewish neighborhood

NARA Jewish newspaper stand

THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMUNITY IS TORMENTED BY THE ANNIHLIATION OF THEIR BRETHREN, AND CAMPAIGN FOR RESCUE.(:05)

 

3/1/43 "STOP HITLER NOW"
UCLA Wise speaks

(SOT/STEPHEN WISE ORATION:)

"…the number of Jews slain…"

UCLA Wise speaks
UCLA Wide shot of meeting

NYT 3/2/43 p. 1
"Save Doomed Jews, Huge
Rally Pleads"

STAGED EVENTS LIKE THIS ONE AT MADISON SQUARE GARDEN GENERATE FAVORABLE NEWS COVERAGE. (:06)

NARA Jewish neighborhood

BUT AMERICAN JEWS CAN’T AGREE ON HOW MUCH ATTENTION THEY WANT TO ATTRACT. (:04)

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:22:18 — 1:22:22 // 1:22:05 — 22:15

NARA World Zionist meeting

As the news increased, the divisions within the Jewish community multiplied. // And there were increasing numbers of people in the Jewish community who wanted to do something more vocal.

SOT /MEDOFF

1:36:14

1:36:45 —36:58

Peter Bergson// was a young Jewish activist from Palestine // who began making contact with congressmen, holding public rallies, writing letters to the editors, and using every means at his disposal to try and arouse public consciousness about what was happening to the Jews under Hitler

ORIGINAL
NYT 11/24/43 p. 8
"How Well are You Sleeping?"

ORIGINAL
NYT 2/8/43
"Action Not Pity Can Save…"

 

BERGSON RESORTS TO BUYING SPACE IN MAJOR NEWSPAPERS, LIKE THE NEW YORK TIMES. (:06)

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:58:57 — 1:59:10


"Death daily but they can be saved"
"Germans exterminate entire Jewish…"

The reason the Bergson Group had to take out these newspaper advertisements was because the issue was not being adequately discussed on the news pages.

UCLA wide shot of pageant
UCLA nazi officers at table
USC FOX woman walk down steps
USC FOX Edward G. Robinson

THE BERGSON GROUP STAGES AN ELABORATE, PAGEANT CALLED "WE WILL NEVER DIE." FEATURING STARS LIKE EDWARD G. ROBINSON.

(:10)

USC FOX Edward G. Robinson

(NEWSREEL NATS)
Robinson "These are the two million Jewish dead of Europe today."

USC FOX audience

IT PLAYS IN HALF-A-DOZEN CITIES WHERE IT DRAWS MORE THAN 100-THOUSAND PEOPLE.

(:05)

USC FOX "We Will Never Die" USC FOX women with arms up
USC FOX woman speaking

(NAT/ "WE WILL NEVER DIE" PAGEANT:)

"…here the Germans turned machine guns on us and killed us all. Remember us…"

SOT/ GRUBER

1:20:44 — 21:00

There were some who said ‘be silent. Roosevelt is our best friend. Don’t rock the boat. The only way to win anything is through silent diplomacy.’ And then there was the Peter Bergson group who said ‘silence is the enemy.’

UCLA Rabbis at Lincoln Memorial

IN THE FALL OF ‘43, PETER BERGSON STAGES A PHOTO OPPORTUNITY THE PRESS CAN’T PASS UP. (:07)

UCLA Rabbi at Podium

(RABBI/NEWSREEL)

"Ready?"

MILO RYAN CBS radio report

UCLA CU Rabbis
UCLA Wide Rabbis

(SOT/ GEORGE MOORAD FOR CBS:)

"The President also heard a plea from the Jews of Hitler’s Europe. From 300 bearded rabbis who marched to Capitol Hill (from Union Station) asking rescue and haven for five million tormented people."

TRANSITION

UCLA FDR with cabinet

INSIDE THE ROOSEVELT ADMINISTRATION A BATTLE ERUPTS BEHIND CLOSED DOORS. (:05)

SOT/ BERENBAUM

3:16:41 — 16:53

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

(and) this was a tension between the State Department and the Treasury Department that blew up in a tremendous battle and a very important memo prepared by the Treasury Department which indicted the State Department.

FDR CU "concealment"
FDR CU "misrepresentation"


FDR photo of HM Jr.

THE MEMO PROVES STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIALS HAVE BEEN LYING AND DELIBERATELY BLOCKING RESCUE PLANS.

THE INFORMATION SHOCKS TREASURY SECRETARY HENRY MORGENTHAU [MORG-en-thaw] JUNIOR. (:12)

SOT/ MEDOFF

1:33:11 — 1:33:36

FDR photo of HM Jr. with FDR

He was the one Jew among Roosevelt’s inner circle whose conscience began to really bother him // and who was horrified when he discovered the extent to which the State Department was placing obstacles in the way of potential rescue options. And who was finally willing to use his position to try to save the Jews in Europe.

FDR photo of HM Jr. with FDR

 

MORGENTHAU BRINGS THE EVIDENCE TO ROOSEVELT. (:06)

FEARING A SCANDAL THE PRESIDENT TAKES ACTION. (06)

(ENERGETIC MUSIC)

UMI PRINT

L.A.Times 1/23/44 p. 4
"Board Set Up for Rescue of Persecuted"

USHMM Hungarian Jews

ON JANUARY 22, 1944, THE PRESIDENT CREATES THE "WAR REFUGEE BOARD" TO RESCUE…

" THE VICTIMS OF ENEMY OPPRESSION WHO ARE IN IMMINENT DANGER OF DEATH."(:12)

FDR photo of HM Jr. with press


NYT 1/23/44
"Roosevelt Moves on Behalf
of Jews"

FDR AHS photo with signature

AS THE MOST ACTIVE BOARD MEMBER, MORGENTHAU IS ANXIOUS TO GENERATE POSITIVE PUBLICITY.

HE’S DISMAYED TO FIND THAT THE TIMES DOWNLPLAYS STORIES THE BOARD PUTS OUT. MORGENTHAU GOES DIRECTLY TO THE PUBLISHER ARTHUR HAYS SULZBERGER, WHO IS ALSO A FRIEND. (:20)

FDR rack focus on date

THIS TRANSCRIPT OF THEIR TELEPHONE CONVERSATION ON JANUARY 29, 1944 . SHOWS MORGENTHAU PUTTING PRESSURE ON SULZBERGER TO HIGHLIGHT THE STORY.

(:11)


FDR document pan "I fail"
FDR pan "well"
FDR cut to ECU "play"
FDR cut to W "now that’s"
FDR cut to ECU "fighting"
FDR cut to ECU "interest"

(VOICES:)

(HMJr.:) I fail to find that the Times carried it at all.

(AHS:) Well that’s a God-damn crime, because I told them I wanted to play that for all it was worth.

(transition to:)

(HMJr:) …now that’s pretty bad Arthur.

(AHS:) …I know they were fighting with the size of the paper…and someone has just got to be down there with special interest watching every story.

SOT/LARUEL LEFF

2:31:20


Laurel Leff

Prof. of Journalism, Northeastern Univ.

Morgenthau is complaining, complaining about the treatment of a story on this topic. And Sulzburger says you know I don’t know why the editors did this, they know I have a special interest in this story.

SOT/ LAUREL LEFF

1:31:31 — 31:40


NYT 1/30/44 p. 1
"Roosevelt Board is Negotiating to Save Refugees from Nazis"

Interestingly enough this — almost the same story — which had been inside the paper is now a page one story after this conversation.

NARA Photo of HMJr. at desk

 

NYT, 7/2/44, p. 1
"Holiday Crowds Ignore Plea"


NYT, 7/2/44, p. 12
"350,000 More Jews Doomed"

BUT MORGANTHAUS’S EFFORTS HAVE LITTLE LASTING IMPACT.

FOR EXAMPLE, JULY 2, 1944 - THE PAPER FEATURES A FRONT PAGE ARTICLE ABOUT FOURTH OF JULY HOLIDAY CROWDS. (:13)

WHILE THE IMPENDING DOOM OF 350,000 JEWS GETS A FEW INCHES ON PAGE TWELVE. (:07)

SOT/ LAUREL LEFF

1:31:42 — 31:54

NARA journalists working

I don’t think there is any doubt that Sulzberger both could have changed the dynamic of the story if he wanted to and that the editors were doing what they thought he wanted on this story.

SOT/ NESSIE GODIN

3:06:47 and 3:06:38

Nesse Godin
Holocaust Survivor

NAA deportation scenes

What happened to the world, to the free world? Why did they not speak up? Why didn’t they stop it.

Why did I have to wait all those years as a kid and cry my eyes out to be free?

NG Nesse photo

NG Nesse with family

NESSIE GODIN [GO-den] MIGHT HAVE ESCAPED HER ORDEAL HAD THE PRESS TOLD THE WORLD WHAT WAS HAPPENING. (:06)

SOT/ NESSIE GODIN

1:26:19 — 26:26 // 1:26:01 — 26:07
// 1:23:26 — 23:30 // 1:23:37 — 23:39 // 1:23:51 — 23:55 // 1:24:06 — 24:48


NG young Nesse photo
NARA shower room

I became prisoner 54,015 in the concentration camp of Stuthoff. // We were lined up, taken into a big room where we were ordered to strip completely naked. Once we were naked, the guards beating us, screaming, yelling. // Then two doors opened up said ‘shower room.’ // We bathed, we walked out the other door, not realizing how lucky we were.

USHMM photo of Hungarian Jews

BY MID 1944 HUNGARY IS HOME TO THE LAST MAJOR JEWISH POPULATION IN NAZI CONTROLLED EUROPE. (:08)

SOT/ BERENBAUM

3:21:09 — 21:19

Between May 15th and July 8th, 437,402 Jews were shipped off on 147 trains to Auschwitz.

USHMM Wide aerial of Jews
USHMM Jews by trains and guards

UMI PRINT
NYT 5/10/44 p. 5
"Jews in Hungary Fear Annihilation"

AS THE DEATH TRAINS ROLL, THE TIMES REPORTS WITH GRIM DETAIL

 

THE NEWS REACHES AMERICA EVEN BEFORE THE JEWS REACH THE CAMPS. (: 10)

GRAPHICS
NYT 7/13/44 p. 3

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

"…If known schedules are adhered to, these victims will arrive in the Auschwitz and Birkenau camps by this week-end, probably with previous knowledge of their fate…railroad sidings have been constructed directly to the gassing halls in both establishments to expedite matters." JULY 13 1944…THE NEW YORK TIMES…PAGE 3.

SOT/ DEBORAH LIPSTADT

1:33:08 — 33:11 // 1:33:27 — 33:35

LC Man and woman read paper

Instead of the world screaming and saying ‘this is outrageous, this is unbelievable’ // it was buried. And it was buried in such a way that makes it possible today for people to say ‘we didn’t know’ when it was all there.

MUSIC TRANSITION

D-Day invasion

(NAT/ D-DAY BATTLE)

(SOT/ NEWSREEL — D-DAY INVASION:)

"This is the supreme moment of invasion…this is frontal assault."

NARA D-Day invasion

D-DAY, JUNE 6th, 1944. (04)

1:30:39-1:30:49
Voice of: Richard C. Hottelet
CBS Radio Broadcast June 6, 1944

NARA Bombs drop
NARA Guns on ships
NARA Bombs explode on ground

(SOT/ RICHARD HOTTELET FOR CBS)

"The flights ahead of us dropped their bombs. The guns on the ships offshore resumed fire. The bombs and the shells burst together on the target. There were sheets of flame down below…"

NARA D-Day invasion

RICHARD C. HOTTELET [HOTT-uh-let] IS THE FIRST CORRESPONDENT ON THE AIR WITH AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT OF THE D-DAY INVASION. (:07)

SOT/ HOTTELET

2:21:17 — 21:36 // 2:21:40 — 21:55


Richard C. Hottelet
War Correspondent, UP and CBS


NARA Germans surrender
LC photo of man at newsstand

The priority was to cover the massive arrival of American military — air, naval, ground forces // Don’t forget that we had a million men or more with parents and friends in the United States who wanted to know what was happening to them.

UMI PRINT
NYT 6/10/44 p. 1
"1,000 Refugees Will Enter To Be Housed at Fort Ontario"

A FEW DAYS LATER PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT FINALLY ANNOUNCES A RESCUE MISSION. (06)

SOT/ RUTH GRUBER

Ruth Gruber

Interior Department, 1941-1946

We sailed from Naples through Nazi-infested waters.

RG photo of Ruth waving on ship

RUTH GRUBER — AN ADMINISTRATION OFFICIAL - IS ASSIGNED TO ACCOMPANY THE LUCKY FEW. (:05)

SOT/ RUTH GRUBER

1:59:38 — 59:56 // 1:57:53 — 57:55 // 1:58:05 — 58:21

RG photos of refugees on ship
RG photos MCU of refugees

On that ship, I became a Jew. // I learned about Jewish courage, Jewish terror. I learned about Jews hiding in tunnels and in sewers and caves, in forests, Jews who risked their lives to save other Jews.

UMI PRINT
CHICAGO TRIBUNE 8/5/44 p. 1

"984 Refugees Arrive from NY"

NARA trains arrive at Oswego
NARA refugees at camp
NARA faces of refugees

WHEN THE REFUGEES ARRIVE IN NEW YORK, ITS BIG NEWS.

THE PAPERS DON’T REPORT THAT 90-PERCENT OF THE IMMIGRATION QUOTAS FOR OCCUPIED EUROPE ARE GOING UN-FILLED.

THEY ALSO FAIL TO POINT OUT THAT MOST OF THESE REFUGESS ARE JEWISH. (:18)

SOT/ GRUBER

2:06:13 — 6:18 cut to 2:07:44 — 8:04

NARA refugee faces in Oswego
AUS. MUS. inmate photos at USHMM

We saved 1,000, we could have saved 50,000. // When I think of what those people have contributed to America, what thousands more could have contributed. All the Einsteins that we lost and the Freuds. // the Yitzhak Perlmans, all the talented people. It haunts me.

DIP TO BLACK

TRANSITION TO AUSCHWITZ

GRAPHIC
NYT 7/6/44 p. 6
"Two Death Camps Places of Horror"

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

"…still naked, batches of men and women are tattoed…"under the most primitive and inhumane conditions, which often lead to fatal blood poisoning — which…is often a merciful alternative." JULY 6, 1944… THE NEW YORK TIMES…PAGE 6.

LC Auschwitz scenes

MUSIC

LC Auschwitz corpses

SPRING 1944.

ESCAPED INMATES GIVE THE FIRST EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF AUSCHWITZ . [OWSH-vits]

THE STORY EVENTUALLY MAKES THE FRONT PAGE OF MOST PAPERS. (:11)

SOT/ ERNEST MICHEL

1:38:21 — 1:38:42

Ernest Michel

Holocaust Survivor

It was brutal, brutal existence. And the only thing that kept me going was the hope that some of us had to survive in order to tell what happened.

FDR WRB letterhead
FDR AJC letterhead and letter


NARA War Dept. memo


NARA Auschwitz bombing photo

THE WAR REFUGEE BOARD AND JEWISH LEADERS SECRETLY PUSH TO BOMB AUSCHWITZ. (:06)

THE WAR DEPARTMENT DENIES THEIR REPEATED REQUESTS, CLAIMING THE CAMP IS

" BEYOND THE MAXIMUM RANGE OF ALLIED BOMBERS. " (:08)

BUT WAS IT?

AN AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN IN SEPTEMBER, 1944 SHOWS BOMBS BEING DROPPED DIRECTLY OVER AUSCHWITZ, TARGETED AT A NEARBY RUBBER FACTORY. (:13)

LC barbed wire and electric fence

FOR MOST OF EUROPES JEWS IT IS ALREADY TOO LATE. (:04)

LC barbed wire and electric fence

(PIANO MUSIC)

Voice of: Paul Winterton
BBC Radio Broadcast August 29, 1944


LC placing skulls in rows

LC charred bodies
LC dumping bodies in woods

(SOT/PAUL WINTERTON FOR BBC:)

"Here is the most horrible story I shall ever have to tell you. I’ve just been down to Lublin in Poland, to see the concentration camp in Majdanek where over a period of three years, the Germans killed and cremated an estimated number of a million and a half people, mostly Jews.…"

LC survivors behind fence




LC aerial of barracks

THE NAZI DEATH CAMP AT MAJDANEK [MY-de-neck] IS LIBERATED BY RUSSIAN SOLDIERS IN THE SUMMER OF 1944. (:08)

FOR THE FIRST TIME, REPORTERS FILE EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF HITLER’S FINAL SOLUTION.

(:07)

LC ovens

LC charred bodies

(SOT/ PAUL WINTERTON:)

"…these furnaces are big enough to hold from four to six bodies at once and together they’re capable of dealing with 2-thousand bodies a day."

THE NEW YORK TIMES RUNS THE STORY ON THE FRONT PAGE. (:03)

GRAPHIC
NYT 8/30/44 p.1

 

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

"I have just seen the most terrible place on the face of the earth…I saw shoes of children as young as one year old…This is a place that must be seen to be believed…never have I been confronted with such complete evidence." AUGUST 30, 1944…THE NEW YORK TIMES…PAGE 1.

SOT/ BERENBAUM

3:31:47 — 31:59 // 3:31:38 — 31:47

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

NYT 8/30/45 p. 1
"Nazi Mass Killing Laid..in Camp"

CU "terrible"

LC stretcher in oven

LC ovens

When a respected reporter says ‘I have now been to the worst place on earth’ // They should have then gone for a full court press. They had missed a monumental story. // An editor should say ‘where else is this happening? What else is happening? What have we missed?’

NARA German retreat
NARA Nazi flag burning
USHMM photo of death march

THOUGH RETREATING ON TWO FRONTS, THE GERMANS HERD THE SURVIVING PRISONERS BACK TOWARD THE FATHERLAND. (:08)

SOT/NESSE GODIN
2:06:53 —6:59 // 2:07:25 —2:07:33

USHMM photos of death march

Nesse Godin
Holocaust Survivor

 

We were taken on a death march. People tell you now they didn’t see, they didn’t hear. We were visible. Many of us dropped dead on the road.

SOT/MICHEL

1:39:18- 39:30 // 1:39:50 —40:10 S


LC photo of Auschwitz gate
USHMM photo of death march

Ernest Michel
Holocaust Survivor

Auschwitz was evacuated on January 18, 1945.// ..we were told, walk out. And 60,000 inmates could walk. Went down to what’s really a death march. Half of them didn’t make it.

GS US soldiers at Buchenwald

GS Buchenwald scenes

IN APRIL 1945 AMERICAN TROOPS LIBERATE TWO GERMAN CONCENTRATION CAMPS…

… AND THE NAMES BUCHENWALD
[BOOK-en-vald] AND DACHAU [DAK-hou] ENTER THE LEXICON OF HORROR. (:12)

(MUSIC)

 

SOT/ ANDY ROONEY

1:01:50 — 1:56 // 1:02:14 — 2:24

Andy Rooney

Stars and Stripes, 1942-1945

Certainly we had no idea of the horror of the concentration camps as we were approaching them. // We knew there were camps where Jews were being kept — primarily Jews — but had no idea of the conditions.

AR photo of Rooney near plane
Stars and Stripes masthead
AR photo of Rooney with others

ANDY ROONEY IS A YOUNG SOLDIER COVERING THE WAR FOR THE ARMY NEWSPAPER "THE STARS AND STRIPES."

ON APRIL 12, 1945, HE’S IN WEIMAR, GERMANY — TRAVELING WITH THE U.S. FIRST ARMY. (:14)+

SOT/ ROONEY

1:10:55 — 1:11:09

GS emaciated men Buchenwald

And I got to Buchenwald and it was just — well, it was hard to take. It was sickening, I mean, you wanted to turn and leave because — you’ve seen the pictures — and you can imagine what it was like being there in person.

S&S Rooney byline

ORIGINAL (shot in office)
Stars and Stripes 1945
"Show Nazi Horror to Housebreak Them"

BUT WHEN ROONEY FILES HIS BUCHENWALD REPORT …

… DISTRESS AT THE MURDER OF MILLIONS YIELDS TO GRIEF OVER ONE MANS DEATH. (:09)

Voice of: H.V. Kaltenborn
NBC Radio Broadcast April 12, 1945


Color FDR portrait from NY Picture News



(SOT/ HV KALTENBORN FOR NBC:)

The White House announced late today that President Roosevelt had died of cerebral hemorrhage…

NARA FDR funeral

LC Murrow at typewriter

THE DAY F-D-R DIES, THE LEGENDARY WAR CORRESPONDENT EDWARD R. MURROW INSPECTS BUCHENWALD.

CBS BROADCASTS HIS MOVING REPORT THREE DAYS LATER. (11)

Voice of: Edward R. Murrow
CBS Radio Broadcast April 15, 1945

 

NARA emaciated survivors
NARA piles of bodies

(SOT/ MURROW FOR CBS)

God alone knows how may men and boys have died here during the last 12 years. // It appeared that most of the men and boys had died of starvation, they had not been executed. But the manner of death seemed unimportant. Murder had been done at Buchenwald.

SOT/ HOTTELET

2:22:51 — 23:05 // 2:23:10 — 23:15

Richard C. Hottelet
War Correspondent, UP and CBS


NARA survivors walk out
NARA emaciated men

This was the real picture, what Ed Murrow came upon was the real nature of the concentration camp. And it was a picture of abject misery and humiliation and suffering and exploitation. // Here was a man who could be believed, who said this is what has happened.

NARA "United News" slate
NARA people carry dead bodies
NARA mass graves

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER:)

"…For the first time, America can believe what they thought was impossible propaganda. Here is documentary evidence of sheer mass murder. Murder that will blacken the name of Germany for the rest of recorded history."

SOT/ HOTTELET
2:23:26 — 23:40

What had been the abstract picture of yes there had been concentration camps. There are people in them they are being mistreated they are dying.

SOT/ HOTTELET

2:23:40 — 23:45

This suddenly came alive. Here were these people. We saw these people.

SOT/ ROSENTHAL

1:11:10 — 1:11:29

A.M. Rosenthal
New York Times, 1943-1999

NARA ovens

 

Oh, I was shocked all right. I mean, I didn’t know about ovens. And the pictures turned your stomach, turned your soul, rotted your heart really to look at them.

NARA Eisenhower touring camps

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER:)

"…and General Eisenhower, a man hardened by the blood and shock of war, seems appalled at these unbelievable sights."

NARA editors touring camps



CU Julius Ochs Adler byline

 

ORIGINAL

NYT 4/28/45 p. 6
"Buchenwald Worse than Battlefield"

EISENHOWER SUMMONS THE NATION’S TOP EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS TO SEE THE CAMPS FOR THEMSELVES.

INCLUDED IN THE GROUP IS JULIUS OCHS ADLER [OX-AD-ler] — VICE PRESIDENT OF THE NEW YORK TIMES.

HIS ACCOUNT OF BUCHENWALD RUNS ON PAGE SIX. (:17)

GRAPHIC
NYT 4/28/45 p. 6
"Buchenwald Worse than Battlefield"

(NEWSPAPER VOICE:)

What I have seen here is worse than any battlefield. The story of Buchenwald has been told, but it cannot be told too often to the people of the United States.

APRIL 28TH, 1945.

SOT/ LIPSTADT

1:13:27 — 1:13:31 // 1:13:41 — 13:46 // 1:14:18 — 1:14:27

NARA Press touring camps


Deborah Lipstadt

Emory University

ORIGINAL
NYT 5/9/45
"Us Editors Back-Urge Peace"

CU "atrocity"

CU "horrors"

They were shocked, they were appalled at what they saw. // And they write back about how unbelievable this was and how unknown it was. // There was a certain disconnect, there was a certain dissonance. / Your newspaper had published stories about this and here you are saying ‘I never knew about it.’

USHMM photo of reporter/child

UMI PRINT

NYT 4/11/45 p. 6
"5,000,000 Reported Slain at Oswiecim"

NARA editors at camps

NARA corpses at camps

THE LIBERATION OF THE CAMPS GETS PROMINENT PLAY IN APRIL AND MAY 1945. (:06)

BUT HINDSIGHT REVEALS A GROSS OMISSION.

THE PRESS BARELY MENTIONS THAT MOST OF THE DEAD ARE JEWS. (:09)

NARA corpses at camps

(SOT/ NEWSREEL ANNOUNCER:)

"…the victims include Poles, Czechs, Russians, Belgians, Frenchmen, German Jews and German political prisoners."

EM EM passport photo

USHMM photo of death march

ERNEST MICHEL[ mich-ELLE] ESCAPES FROM THE DEATH MARCH, AND TASTES FREEDOM FOR THE FIRST TIME IN SIX YEARS. (:07)

SOT/ MICHEL

1:43:43 — 44:21 titen


Ernest Michel
Holocaust Survivor

On April 18, 1945, my two friends and I stood somewhere in a wood in Germany. And for the first time I cried. I never cried in Auschwitz. There was nobody behind us. There were no guns. We stood there. And the three of us put our arms around each other and we cried.

NARA German officials surrender

ON MAY 7th, A WEEK AFTER HITLER COMMITS SUICIDE, GERMANY SURRENDERS. (:06)

MUTUAL Radio report

NARA US flag raised on swastika

(SOT/ MUTUAL BROADCASTING)

"The BBC recorded at 8:09 today Eastern War Time a // German broadcast quoting the German foreign minister as announcing that the German high command accepts unconditional surrender…"

UCLA marching troops

(Victory/patriotic music)

(NAT V-E DAY NEWSREEL)

NARA Nazi swastika explodes

NARA Bodies

TRUMPETING GERMANY’S DEFEAT…(:03)

… THE PRESS FAILS TO REPORT THAT HITLER HAS ACHIEVED A GRUESOME VICTORY. (:05)

SOT/ MICHAEL BERENBAUM

3:45:35 — 45:44 // 3:45:48 — 3:45:53

Michael Berenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

NARA corpses at camps

 

They did not realize that Germany had won one of its two wars — the war against the Jews. // They didn’t understand the magnitude of the Jewish defeat.

DIP TO BLACK

DIP TO BLACK

NARA Goerring in witness box

(FULL NATS)
"You must plead guilty or not guilty…"
(Goerring answers not guilty in German)

NARA Nuremberg Trial scenes

AFTER THE WAR, THE ALLIES BEGIN PROSECUTING NAZI WAR CRIMINALS.

IN HIS FIRST REAL JOB, ERNEST MICHEL COVERS THE NUREMBERG TRIALS FOR A NEW GERMAN NEWSPAPER. (:12)

SOT/ ERNEST MICHEL

1:52:50 — 53:18 // 1:52:28 — 52:33

 

 

 

 

EM press pass

The first day I walked into the Nuremberg courtroom — and I sit there not much further than this wall. Goerring and Hoess and (Keitel) and (Kahltenbrunner) and (Streicher.) And I said, ‘these sons of — pardon me — they’re the ones who were responsible for what happened to me. I wanted to jump down, you know, but I’m a correspondent. I’m a newspaperman. I have to be objective and write. // And I insisted that my byline which appeared showed "special correspondent, former Auschwitz inmate number 104995."

GS color Buchenwald scenes



NARA DP camp scenes — children

ONLY A THIRD OF EUROPE’S JEWS SURVIVE HITLER’S REIGN…

…MOST ESCAPE WITH LITTLE MORE THAN THEIR LIVES. (:07)

NESSIE GODIN [GO-den] SPENDS FIVE YEARS IN A DISPLACED PERSONS CAMP.

SHE’S STILL HAUNTED BY THE WOMEN SHE WATCHED DIE. (:09)

SOT/ NESSIE GODIN

3:11:28 — 11:45

Nesse Godin
Holocaust Survivor


LC female survivors Auschwitz
LC barbed wire fence

 

I always could hear the voices of those women, always. In day and night, ‘tell the world what happened here. Don’t let us be forgotten.’

NARA aerial of barracks

NARA survivors behind fence

(MUSIC)

SOT/MICHAEL BARENBAUM
3:47:14 — 3:47:24

NARA survivors behind fence
NARA uniforms hanging in snow

The Holocaust is one of those very rare events in history that the more distant we stand from the event the larger it looms.

LC children at Auschwitz
LC children show tattoos

IT IS NOT UNTIL THE 1970’S THAT THE TERM HOLOCAUST, WITH A CAPITAL "H", ENTERS OUR VOCABULARY. (:08)

SOT/ BERENBAUM

3:49:31 — 3:49:40

Michael Barenbaum
Holocaust Scholar

The moment we name something is the moment we can identify it, the moment we can understand, the moment that ultimately we can control and combat it.

ORIGINAL
TV Guide Cover 4/78


TV Guide listing - inside page A-63

UMI PRINT
Washington Post 4/12/78 p. B1
"Holocaust Pain and Power"

ONLY WHEN HOLLYWOOD PUTS THE HOLOCAUST IN PRIME TIME DO AVERAGE AMERICANS COME TO UNDERSTAND THE HORROR.

A 1978 TELEVISION MINI-SERIES SPURS INTEREST AS NEVER BEFORE. (:13)

SOT/ NESSIE

3:09:18 — 09:35 // 3:09:49 — 10:15

UMI PRINT
Washington Post 4/12/78 p. B5
"Holocaust pivotal TV"


Nesse Godin
Holocaust Survivor

 

It was not until then that people really started to listen to us — the survivors // asking us to share our memories for posterity so the world would really know how it felt, how it was, and what really happened.

FF USHMM exterior Wide/Tight

AP Schindler’s List poster

 

IN THE EARLY ‘90s THERE’S ANOTHER SURGE OF INTEREST WITH THE OPENING OF THE U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM AND THE FILM "SCHINDLER’S LIST." (: 10)

FF books at USHMM bookstore

OVER TIME, DECLASSIFED DOCUMENTS HAVE ALLOWED SCHOLARS TO EXPOSE THE U.S. ROLE IN THE HOLOCAUST:

THAT OF PASSIVE BYSTANDER.(:08)

SOT/ MICHAEL BERENBAUM

3:58:33 — 3:58:51

It baffled the imagination. How could we know so much and do so little? And EVEN as we explain it, EVEN as we understand it, we can’t lose the moral outrage.

SOT/ NESSIE GODIN

3:05:42 — 3:05:58

President Roosevelt was a wonderful man. He did a lot of things, good things in the United States. But when it came to what happened in the Holocaust, he did not do the right thing.

FDR LIB. FDR signs document

UCLA FDR at Yalta


AF working journalists

IN RETROSPECT, IT’S TEMPTING TO SAY ROOSEVELT SHOULD HAVE DONE MORE.

BUT THE GOVERNMENT HAD CONFLICTING DUTIES — BOTH FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC.

THE PRESS HAD ONLY ONE JOB: TO SEEK - AND REPORT — THE TRUTH. (:15)

SOT/ LAUREL LEFF

2:43:30 — 43:44

Laurel Leff

Prof. of Journalism, Northeastern Univ.

Because of the way the press treated this story, you never really know whether you could have mobilized American public opinion to pressure the government to do more.

SOT/ MEDOFF

2:03:34 — 3:56


Dr. Rafael Medoff
Prof. of Jewish Studies, S.U.N.Y., Purchase

Newspaper editors had a dual responsibility. They had a moral responsibility as human beings to take an interest in the plight of people being persecuted overseas. They also had a professional responsibility to report the news. To report it fully and accurately, and to give it the attention it deserved. They failed on both counts.

ORIGINAL
NYT 9/24/96 p. A25
"5.5 Billion Missing"
AMR byline

ABE ROSENTHAL WRITES AN UNPRECEDENTED ADMISSION ON BEHALF OF THE NEW YORK TIMES IN SEPTEMBER 1996. (:10)

SOT/ A.M. ROSENTHAL

1:28:16 — 28:38


A.M. Rosenthal
New York Times 1944-1999

Collection of NYT articles

The charge has often been made that The New York Times’ coverage of the Holocaust was grossly inadequate. The clippings from The New York Times // demonstrate that the charges were justified. Period.

NARA press touring camp

THE EDITORS AND PUBLISHERS WHO CONTROLLED AMERICA’S NEWSROOMS DURING WWII ARE LONG GONE.

BUT THE HAUNTING QUESTION REMAINS: COULD A MORE AGGRESSIVE PRESS HAVE SAVED LIVES? (:13)

SOT/ KALB 1:26:05 (NEW)


Marvin Kalb
Harvard University

SOT/KALB 1:23:25-23:30 (OLD)


LC Color liberation film
ABC Kosovo trains
NAA Westerbork trains

Yes, if the press was there in WWII it would have affected the outcome of the holocaust.


(VO) There is no doubt in my mind that lives could have been saved if the press focused on this story.

We have illustrated that today all over the world. When there is a camera pointed at a disaster, it tugs at the conscience of congress and parliament all over the world and action is taken.

SOT/ MICHEL

2:01:21 — 1:47

Ernest Michel
Holocaust Survivor

LC Color liberation corpses

This was millions of people put in a room with gas being turned on. Certainly it would be a "one page" story today. Kosovo is. Cambodia is. What’s happened in Africa is. // I believe more could have been done if the world would have known what happened. But it was not a priority.

SOT/ BERENBAUM

3:10:24 — 3:10:42

LC Color liberation corpses

One rabbi who wrote about the press said it brilliantly. He said ‘the Holocaust may have been unstoppable, but it should have been unbearable. And it wasn’t.’

SOT/ NESSIE

3:05:00 — 3:05:10 // 3:07:19 — 3:07:27

NARA young Jewish boy
NARA emaciated man


We learned a lesson at a loss of millions of millions of people. // All this cannot be undone. We can learn from that that when we see a wrong, we should speak up.

LC Survivors walking

NARA severely emaciated man
LC child on bed
NARA man looks at camera

(MUSIC)

 

 

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